Are Chicago’s Safe Passage Routes Located in the Highest Risk Areas?

Safe passage routes to school provide not only a sense of safety for Chicago students from pre-K through high school, but they reduce crime involving students and help increase school attendance. Chicago’s Safe Passage program was introduced in 2009 after the beating death by gangs of 16-year-old Fenger High School honors student Derrion Albert, which was captured on cell phone video. His death and the circumstances received national attention along with a series of other incidents involving CPS students caught in gang violence. Since then, the program has expanded to include schools, parents, residents, law enforcement officials and even local businesses in efforts to provide students with a safe environment. The various types of safe passage programs among the 51 safe route programs currently available include: safe haven programs in which students who fear for their safety can find refuge at the local police station, fire house, library and even convenience stores, barbershops and restaurants; patrols along school routes by veterans, parents and local residents; and walking to school programs in which parents and local residents create a presence to help deter unlawful incidents.

The map below shows the number of all crimes committed in the city of Chicago during the current school year, and the locations of schools and safe routes among those communities that have safe routes. Currently, there are 517 Chicago public schools, of which, only 136 Chicago public schools (26.3% of all schools) fall within the 51 safe routes. Although the safe routes are located in 37 of the high crime communities in general (south, west and northeast sides of Chicago), they do not exist in the pockets of the highest crime incidents (1,500+ highlighted in burgundy) where children are the most vulnerable. Of the 47 schools that fall within the extreme crime areas (1,500+ incidents a year), only 6 have safe routes; the others offer no safe passage options. A list of the schools appears at the end of this blog.

Click through to see the enlarged image.


SafePassage_Routs

Schools located in extremely high-crime areas of Chicago (Schools highlighted in green have safe passage routes):
Bennett, Bowen HS, Bradwell, Camelot Safe – Garfield Park, Camelot Safe Academy, Clark HS, Coles, Community, Ericson, Frazier Charter, Frazier Prospective, Galapagos Charter, Great Lakes Charter, Gregory, Harlan HS, Hefferan, Heroes, Herzl, Hirsch HS, Hubbard HS, Learn Charter – Butler, Leland, Mann, Mireles, Noble Charter – Academy, Noble Charter – Baker College Prep, Noble Charter – DRW, Noble Charter – Muchin, Noble Charter – Rowe Clark, Oglesby, Plato, Polaris Charter, Powell, Schmid, Shabazz Charter – Shabazz, Smith, South Shore Intl HS, Webster, Westcott, Winnie Mandela HS, YCCS Charter – Association House, YCCS Charter – CCA Academy, YCCS Charter – Community Service, YCCS Charter – Innovations, YCCS Charter – Olive Harvey, YCCS Charter – Sullivan, YCCS Charter – Youth Development

 

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image of the map reflects the different visualization techniques that might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries. Visualizations can help identify existing or emerging trends, spot irregularities or obscure patterns, and even address or solve issues.

Ask us how to visualize your research
For help visualizing your own research findings or seeing if your research lends itself to similar techniques including data acquisition and pre-processing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.

Vehicle Theft in Chicago

Even though vehicle thefts accounted for only 3.9% (10,099) of all crimes in Chicago last year, 62% of the stolen vehicles were recovered with severe damage says the Chicago Police department. Most often the vehicles are stolen by organized rings to be sold on black-markets or shipped overseas, and stripped for parts and resold to various body-shops, or are even resold to unsuspecting customers. In Chicago, 78.9% of the vehicles are stolen from streets, alleys and alongside sidewalks, 8.6% from buildings other than residences, 6.7% from parking lots, 5.5% from residences, and 0.3% from the airports.

The map below shows a hot-spot analysis of the communities that are most and least affected by vehicle theft. The visualization shows statistically significant (statistically significant is the likelihood that a theft is caused by something other than mere random chance) hot-spots in red where a high number of thefts occur and statistically significant cold-spots in blue where few or no thefts occur.

Communities most-prone to vehicle theft (not safe): Uptown (3) in the north, or Austin (25), Avondale (21), Logan Square (22), Hermosa (20), Humboldt Park (23), West Town (24), East/West Garfield Parks (26, 27), Near West Side (28), North Lawndale (29) in the west , or any south central parts of Chicago, namely Chicago Lawn (66), East/West Englewoods (67, 68), Greater Grand Crossing (69), South Shore (43), Auburn Gresham (71) are prone to vehicle thefts.

Communities least-prone to vehicle theft (safe): Edison Park (9), Norwood Park (10), Jefferson Park (11), Forest Glen (12), North Park (13), Dunning (17), Portage Park (15), Lincoln Square (4), North Center (5), Lincoln Park (7) in the north and Bridgeport (60), New City (61), Garfield Ridge (56), Clearing (64), Ashburn (70), West Pullman (53), Morgan Park (75), Beverly (72), Washington Heights (73), East Side (52) and Calumet Heights (48) in the south are least prone to vehicle thefts.
Click through to see the enlarged image.

VehicleTheft_StatSig_2015

 

Techniques Used
The above visualization includes 2 major types of spatial analysis techniques. The vehicle theft locations were geocoded using the addresses and then, Getis-Ord Gi* statistic was used to generate a hot-spot analysis to identify statistically significant clusters.

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image of the map reflects the different visualization techniques that might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries. Visualizations can help identify existing or emerging trends, spot irregularities or obscure patterns, and even address or solve issues.

Ask us how to visualize your research
For help visualizing your own research findings or seeing if your research lends itself to similar techniques including data acquisition and pre-processing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.

CO2 Emission

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are both natural and man-made. Natural sources include oceans, soil, plants, animals and volcanoes while human-related CO2 is emitted through deforestation, burning of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gases and oil for transportation, and energy for commercial, industrial and residential use. Although human-related emissions account for only 5% of the total, they have increased enormously overtime. According to the U.S. EPA, since 1970, global CO2 emissions have increased 90%, the major contributors (78%) being fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, followed by deforestation, land-use change and agriculture.

While there are many ways to reduce carbon emission, the most effective is to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. I pride myself for being environmentally conscious – reducing wastes by using energy-efficient products (furnace, light bulbs, etc.), taking public transportation, recycling and reusing things. Yet, using the “carbon footprint,” a calculator provided by the U.S. EPA, my annual footprint for home energy, transportation and household waste totaled 18,131 lbs., compared to the U.S. average of 24,550 lbs. for a single householder. However, this doesn’t include the CO2 emissions related to producing and delivering my daily consumption of certain goods (food, beverages, clothing, etc.) and services (restaurants, local grocer, etc.) including the amount of energy I use both at work (technology equipment, etc.) and commuting there (based on my 12-15 hours spent outside my home each day). This tool also revealed that just switching my washing machine from warm to cold water would cut carbon emission 150 lbs. per year and save me about $12. If you’d like to see your carbon footprint and/or identify ways to reduce consumption and save money, click on the EPA’s calculator here.

The following infographic shows the extent and distribution of CO2 emissions in the world, the U.S. and Illinois, including the carbon footprints of certain products.

Click through to see the enlarged image.


CarbonEmission_Infograph

Techniques Used
The above visualization includes 3 types of techniques:

Quantitative Analysis: A bar and pie chart were used to visualize quantitative data to show carbon emissions by various sectors over time and in 2013.

Statistical Analysis (GIS): Spatial analysis included two major techniques. The choropleth maps and classification methods were used to show the distribution of the emission levels globally and for the U.S.

Graphics: Images were obtained from Google and modified using Photoshop graphic design software

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image of the map reflects the different visualization techniques that might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries. Visualizations can help identify existing or emerging trends, spot irregularities or obscure patterns, and even address or solve issues.

Ask us how to visualize your research
For help visualizing your own research findings or seeing if your research lends itself to similar techniques including data acquisition and pre-processing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.

State of Minimum Wage$ in the U.S.

Since the U.S. instituted a federal minimum wage rate in 1938, various state and local governments have pushed for higher rates. Seattle was the first to increase its minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2017, a $2 increase every year starting from 2015. San Francisco followed suit with an increase to $15 by 2018. In 2015, Oakland increased its rate to $12.25, and Chicago will slowly increase its minimum wage from $8.25 to $13 an hour by 2019. The rate in Washington, D.C. is currently $10.50 and will be increased to $11.50 by the end of 2016. The federal minimum wage has been $7.25 an hour since 2009.

According to a U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 report, in 2014 (the latest year detailed data is available), 3.8% of all hourly workers 16 years and older (roughly 3 million workers) were paid at or below the federal minimum wage, with 1.6% at the federal level and 2.2% below. Women were 2.9% of the total and men 1.6%. A regional breakdown showed that 2.6%-2.8% of Southern workers fell below the federal minimum with Louisiana reporting the highest percentage of workers (3.5%) making less than the minimum.

The following infographic shows the state of the minimum wage throughout the U.S.

Click through to see the enlarged image.

MinumumWage

Techniques Used
The above visualization includes 3 types of techniques:

Quantitative Analysis: Two chart types were used to visualize quantitative data on wages: a trend chart shows the historic U.S. minimum wages adjusted for inflation using 2015 CPI (consumer price index) and a bubble chart shows countries with hourly minimum wages higher than that of the U.S.

Statistical Analysis (GIS): The spatial analysis shows statistical analysis ranges from basic counts such as total characters and words, number of lines and syllables, and average words per line or sentence to more complex indices and densities.

Graphics: Graphics and images used in the infographics were edited using Photoshop graphic design software.

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image above shows different visualization techniques that might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries. Some visualizations can help identify existing or emerging trends, spot irregularities or obscure patterns, and even address or solve issues.

Ask us how to visualize your research
If you want help visualizing your own research findings or wonder if your research lends itself to similar techniques including data acquisition and preprocessing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.

Visualizing ‘The Star’

While Mozart is popularly believed to have originated the lullaby, “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star,” the words to the famous cradle song were written by Jane Taylor, an English poet and novelist. It was first published in 1806 in “Rhymes for the Nursery,” written and complied by Jane and her sister Ann Taylor. Like other lullabies, it came to be paired with the melody of a popular French children’s song, “Ah! vous dirais-je, Maman,” a tune popularized further by Mozart’s twelve different tune variations.
The infograph below creates a contemporary visualization of this classic lullaby.

Click through to see the enlarged image.

TwinkleTwinkle_TextAnalysis

Techniques Used
The above visualization includes 3 types of analysis techniques:

Text Analysis: The word trend graph shows the relative frequencies of the words used most. The word cloud displays all the words of the lullaby in the form of a cloud with the size of the text proportional to the word frequency. The text network shows the most influential words in the lullaby responsible for the theme shifts and other themes associated with these influential words using a non-linear network diagram.

Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis ranges from basic counts such as total characters and words, number of lines and syllables, and average words per line or sentence to more complex indices and densities.

Quantitative Analysis: Two chart types were used to visualize quantitative data — a trend chart showing word counts of the most frequently used words and a bubble chart showing the word count of all words in the lullaby.

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image above shows different visualization techniques used in analyzing text such as books, articles or even candidate stump speeches. These might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries.

Ask us how to visualize your research
If you want help visualizing your own research findings or wonder if your research lends itself to similar techniques including data acquisition and preprocessing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.

Crime in Chicago

Among the 11,363 crimes reported in Chicago during the first 9 months of 2015, theft, battery, criminal damage, narcotics and assault ranked highest, totaling 68% of all reported crime. The infographic below shows a snapshot of crime in Chicago during this period.

Click through to see the enlarged image.
ChicagoCrime_Final

Techniques Used
The above visualization includes 4 main types of visualization techniques:

Text Analysis: The first image is a visual a representation of text data, specifically the word count of the type of crimes (i.e. frequency) displayed as a word cloud.

Spatial Analysis (GIS): The map uses an Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method to identify crime hotspots (in red). It also allows one to predict the frequency of crime at an unknown location based on the known values.

Quantitative Analysis: Two chart types were used to visualize quantitative data – a bar chart showing the crime counts of the major crime types for the most affected ward/community, and a bubble chart showing the number of crime by ward and community.

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image above shows different visualization techniques that might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries.  Visualizations can help identify existing or emerging trends, spot irregularities or obscure patterns, and even address or solve issues.

A good example of one such implementation is John Conroy’s Legal Clinic project in the College of Law. This research project used a multi-pronged approach in which first, various visualizations were created to compare exonerations and false convictions in major U.S. cities. Later, the SSRC trained Conroy’s research assistants how to create an exoneration database and clean and convert data into mappable formats using various techniques.

Ask us how to visualize your research
If you want help visualizing your own research findings or wonder if your research lends itself to similar techniques including data acquisition and preprocessing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.

Which Commuters of the Largest U.S. Cities Use the Greenest Mode of Transportation to Work?

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, New York City (population 8.2 million), with one of the best subway systems in the world, ranked greenest mode of work transportation among the four biggest cities in the U.S mainly for its extensive subway system. Almost three-quarters of NYC’s commuters (72.7%) took public transportation, biked or walked to work, or worked from home. Less than one-quarter (22.4%) drove alone to work.

Only one-third of the commuters in third-biggest Chicago (2.7 million) chose public transportation to get to work. A half drove alone, mainly due to lack of or inconvenient mass transit in the outlying areas of the city.

With its underdeveloped and inadequate mass transit system, roughly 77% of Los Angeles commuters either drove alone or carpooled to work, while only 20% used public transportation.

Houston, the country’s forth largest city (2.1 million), was the flipside of NYC and ranked lowest of the four in green-friendly mode of transportation to work. Three-fourths of Houston’s commuters drove alone, and less than one-tenth (9.7%) used public transportation, biked, walked, or worked from home. Historically, Houston residents and elected officials have opposed the development of a mass transit system. It was the last major city to finally implement a 7.5-mile, 16-station light rail system, in 2004 that served only the densest areas.

Click through to see the enlarged image.

Green_Transportation
 

Implementing visualization techniques in faculty research
The image above shows different visualization techniques that might be used to effectively convey data or research conclusions to different types of audiences in various disciplines or industries. Some visualizations can help identify existing or emerging trends, spot irregularities or obscure patterns, and even address or solve issues.

A good example of one such implementation is Sociology Asst. Prof. Fernando DeMaio’s Center for Community Health Equity (CCHE) project. This research project used a multi-pronged approach in which maps were first created by SSRC to spatially visualize the areas served by hospitals in Chicago by various sub-geographies. Later, the SSRC trained Fernando’s research assistants how to clean and convert health, demographic and socio-economic data into mappable formats. They were also trained to create maps comparing health and demographic disparities in Chicago and Toronto, similar to the four-city transportation visualization depicted here.
 

Ask us how to visualize your research
If you want help with visualizing your own research findings or wonder if your research lends itself to similar techniques, including data acquisition and preprocessing of both quantitative and qualitative data, contact Nandhini Gulasingam at mgulasin@depaul.edu.